1. Umar Abubakar Garbai ibn Ibrahim
2. Sanda Kura
3. Kumar Ibn Muhammad
1. HE SUCCESSFULLY SAVED BORNO IN TWO
OCCASIONAL ATTACKS FROM THE HANDS OF
THE JIHADISTS. AFTER HIS INITIAL HELP, EL-
KANEMI WAS REWARDED WITH GIFTS OF
MONEY, CATTLE AND SLAVES, BUT FOLLOWING
THE SECOND HELP, HE REQUESTED AND
OBTAINED A GIFT OF LAND AND A FIELD
AROUND NGURNO AND THIS EVENTUALLY
BECAME THE MAIN CENTER OF POLITICAL
ACTIVITY IN BORNO.
2. HE RELIGIOUSLY REFORMED THE EMPIRE BY
WRITING BOOKS AND PAMPHLET TO SCHOLARS
AND RULERS, URGING THEM TO PRACTICE A
PURE FORM OF ISLAM AND TEACHING THEIR
SUBJECTS TO DO SAME.
HE SUCCEEDED IN REFORMING THE JUDICIAL
SET UP OF BORNO BY ADMINISTERING THE
EMPIRE BASED ON ISLAMIC LAW (SHARIA).
3. HE ALSO REMAINED THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE
BORNO EMPIRE. SHEHU EL-KANEMI ALSO
SUCCEEDED IN LIBERATING THE DIVERSE
ETHNIC GROUPS IN BORNO. FOR INSTANCE,
THERE EXISTED THE POLICY OF INTERMARRIAGE AMONG THE PEOPLES OF THE
1. The Premier of the Northern Region and Sarduana of Sokoto,
Sir Ahmadu Bello
2. The Premier of the Western Region, Chief Samuel Ladoke Akintola.
3. Prime Minister of Nigeria, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, ( he
was abducted and his dead body was discovered six days
later at a roadside in Lagos.)
1. Instability Of Government: The government during the military regime was unstable.
Coup d’état was the order of the day during this regime
and you can just wake up to hear that a new Head of State had emerged.
This led to instability in the government and the lack of continuity in government. However, this same persist till
2. Human Right Violation
Violation of human right is at its greatest during the
military era in Nigeria. This was evident in the way those
opposing the government are treated. Hundreds of people
are being captured and imprisoned for many years.
3. Corruption: If you are one of the persons that believe the civilian
regime is the most corrupt then think again. The military
regime was a very corrupt one.
4. No Freedom Of Speech And Media
Are you looking for a regime where propaganda is at its
highest? Then look at the military regime.
1. Political rationales : Nigeria’s active participation in UN
peacekeeping is primarily motivated by its quest for
global peace, security and stability. There is also the
belief that Nigeria’s active participation in
peacekeeping could strengthen its case for a
permanent seat in an expanded UN Security Council.
2. Normative Rationales : Nigeria considers it a moral
duty to promote peace among all states and among
all peoples. Nigeria also considers it a moral
obligation to fight for equal rights and respect for all
Africans, and black people worldwide. Given the
plethora of security challenges faced by the black
race, Nigeria should intervene in conflict or crisis
situations if capable.
3. Security rationales : The protection of Nigeria’s
territorial integrity, sovereignty, as well as lives and
properties of Nigerians at home and abroad is a
major consideration for embarking on peace
4. Economic rationales : There is always an economic
dimension to any country’s foreign policy calculation
including contributing to peace operations where
there are pecuniary gains to Nigeria as well as
individual participants involved in UN missions. These
financial benefits contribute to the socio-economic
welfare of soldiers and sometimes, Nigeria’s military.
5. Institutional rationales: Nigeria’s contribution to UN
peacekeeping is also informed by the non-pecuniary
benefits involved. For instance, peacekeeping has
become an avenue for training and a platform for
members of the Nigerian Armed Forces to gain
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