(C2H6O)n=Relative molecular mass [(12×2) + (1×6) + (16×1)]n=46 (24+6+16)n=46 46n=46 Divide both sides by 46 n=1 (C2H6O)n=(C2H6O)1 =C2H6O :. The molecular formular is C2H6O.
(2ai) (Pick any two) (i) The particles do not attract each other. (ii) Gases are made up of molecules which are in constant motion. (iii) The collision of the gas molecules are perfectly elastic. (iv) The temperature of the gas is a measure of the average Kinetic energy of the gas particles.
(2aiii) (i) Sulphur. (ii) Iondine.
(2aiv) R is directly proportional to 1/√p
Where R is the rate of diffusion of gas. p is the vapour density of gas
(2b) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) <——> 2SO3(g) ∆H= -xKJ/mol
(i) Increase in temperature :- In this case, the forward reaction is exothermic. Therefore, an increase in temperature will cause the equilibrium position to shift to the left i.e it favours reactant formation(SO2 & O2)
(ii) Decrease in Pressure :- Decrease in pressure cause the equilibrium position to shift to the left, favouring the backward reaction. This will cause an increase in the pressure of the system and thus keep the equilibrium constant unchanged. It will also result in high yields of the reactants(SO2 & O2). Expospy.com (iii) Removal of oxygen :- Removal of oxygen will shift the equilibrium position to the left thereby favouring the backward reaction. Removal of oxygen favours the reactants.
(2cii) (Pick any one) (i) Calcium chloride (CaCl2). (ii) Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). (iii) Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2).
(2ciii) (Pick any one) (i) Copper(ii) Oxide (CuO). (ii) Sodium Trioxonitrate(v) (NaNO3). (iii) Calcium Oxide.
(3ai) Hard Water do not form ladder readily with soap. It is a water that contains a number of dissolved salts which include CaSO4, MgSO4 and Ca(HCO3)2
(3aii) (i) Temporary hardness of water (ii) Permanent hardness of water
Permanent hardness of water is caused by calcium tetraoxosulphate(vi) salts or magnesium tetraoxosulphate(vi) salts WHILE Temporary hardness of water is caused by hydrogen trioxocarbonate(v) salt.
(3b) ADVANTAGES (Pick any 2) (i) It tastes better than soft water due to presence of dissolved minerals in it. (ii) Calcium salts present in it, when taken by animals help to build strong bones and teeth. (iii) Helps in formation of shells in Snails and crab.
DISADVANTAGES (Pick any 2) (i) It wastes soap. (ii) It causes furing in kettles and pipes. (iii) It cannot be used in tanning and dyeing industries as Ca^2+ ions and Mg^2+ ions interfere in the process.
(3ci) An ion Is any atom or group of atom which posses an electric charge.
(3cii) Isotope is the existence or phenomenon whereby atom of the same element having the same atomic number but different mass number due to difference in the number of neutron present in those atom.
35 37 Cl Cl 17 17
=(75/100 × 35) + (25/100 × 37)
=26.25 + 9.25 =35.5
(3di) 2NaCl + H2SO4 ———> Na2SO4 + 2HCl(g)
(3dii) (i) Colourless gas with an irritating smell. (ii) Damp blue litmus paper turns red. (iii) 1.25 times denser than air. (iv) Very soluble in water.
(4ai) (View image above)
(4aii) (Pick any one) (i) Starch-iodide paper test. (ii) Damp blue litmus paer test. Expospy.com (4bi) (i) 2FeCl2(aq) + Cl2(g) ——> 2FeCl3(aq). (ii) 2KI(aq) + Cl2(g) ——> 2KCl(aq) + I2(s). (iii) 6NaOH(aq) + 3Cl2(g) ——> NaClO3(aq) + 5NaCl(aq) + 3H2O(l).
(4ci) Number of electrons=2n² In M shell, n=3 :. 2n² = 2(3)² =2×9 =18
(4cii) (View image above)
(4ciii) (Pick any three) (i) It has hard and brittle solid. (ii) It readily dissolve in water. (iii) It has high melting and boiling point. (iv) It conducts electricity either in molten or aqeuous state. (v) It is composed of ions in an orderly pattern to form crystal lattice.
(5ai) Polymerization can be defined as the process in which relatively small molecules called monomers combine chemically to produce a very large chainline or network molecule called a polymer.
(5aii) Examples of natural polymer (Pick any 2) (i) Silk. (ii) Wool. (iii) DNA. (iv) Cellulose. (v) Protein.
Exampled of Artificial Polymer (i) Nylon. (ii) Polyethylene. (iii) Polyester. (iv) Teflon. (v) Epoxy.
(5bi) Heavy chemical industry is the industry that produce chemical in relatively large quantities and they use chemical extensively
EXAMPLE (Pick any 1) (i) bleaching powder. (ii) NaOH. (iii) H2SO4. (iv) HCL.
(5bii) (Pick any 3) (i) Power supply. (ii) Communications. (iii) Labour Supply. (iv) Access Market. (v) Raw materials.
(5biii) Cement Industry (i) Limestone. (ii) Shells. (iii) Chalk combine with shove. (iv) Suite. (v) Silica Sand.
Soap Industry (i) Oils and fats. (ii) Soda iye or potash iye. (iii) Brine. (iv) Sodium Carbonate.
(5ci) Saponification is a process that involves conversion of fat, oil or lipid into soap and alcohol by the action of heat in the presence of aqueous alkali.
(5cii) Black Soap oe generally made from locally harvested African Plants such as plantain, cocoa pods, palm tree leaves and shea tree bark. The ingredients are sun-dried and roasted, which is how it gets its deep color.
PROCEDURE (i) The skins and leaves from Bananas, plantains and the Shea nut tree are burnt into a potash. (ii) Water is then added to the ash to create a dark liquid which creates a potassium hydroxide iye. (iii) Finally, the resulting liquid is strained and filtered to remove impurities. (iv) The mixture is stirred In a large vat and shea butter is added to the mix. This is the basic soap mixture. It is allowed to sit for a month for the ingredients to band and set into soap.