NECO Geography (Human and Regional) Obj and Essay Answer – 2018 June/July Expo

NECO Human Geography obj and theory Questions and Answer – June/July 2018 Expo Runz

1a) Define migration:

It can be defined as the Human migration by which, is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.


Explain four major types of migration

(i) Internal Migration – It is the moving within a state, country, or continent.

(ii) External Migration – It is the moving in a different state, country, or continent.

(iii) Population Transfer – It is when a government pushed or forces a large group of people out of a country or region. This is usually based on ethnicity or religion. It is also otherwise known as an forced migration or involuntary migration.

(iv) Impelled Migration – It is also called an imposed migration or reluctant migration. A group of people or an individual leaves a country or region because of unfavorable situations due to political, religious, social factors.


1. Physical Factors:

Physical factors that affect population distribution include altitude and latitude, relief, climate, soils, vegetation, water and location of mineral and energy resources. It is important to note that most of the physical factors influence population distribution only indirectly through climatic conditions. 

2. Economic, Political and Historical Factors:

Population distribution and density in an area depends to a large extent on the type and scale of economic activities. Same geographic conditions provide different opportunities for people with different types and scale of economic activities. Technological and economic advancement can bring about significant changes in population distribution of an area. For instance, the Prairies of North America offered different opportunities for the Indians with their hunting economy, the nineteenth century ranchers, the later settled agriculturist and finally the modern industrialized and largely urbanized society



i-Increases productivity — When transportation improvements increase the accessibility of people and businesses to reach jobs, services, goods, and activities, productivity also increases

ii-Enhances job and labor force accessibility — Another economic benefit of transportation improvements is the resulting larger pool of employees available for the job market

iii-Enhances supply chain efficiency — When businesses are clustered together, it is easier and quicker for them to reach their suppliers and customers. This phenomenon has a positive impact on freight logistics and delivery scheduling. Easier access to needed supplies and materials and faster delivery times to customers can help lower transportation and inventory carrying costs while increasing both productivity and profitability.

Iv-Transportation revolution has therefore significantly improved accessibility of places and therefore bringing more developments and growth. 

V-Market areas therefore become even more extensive as transportation has improved. Similarly, supply areas have expanded. For instance, agricultural production has become more profitable and so wider areas of production are opened up from the central markets.

2b)The Technological Factor:

The technological characteristics of each major transport mode are considered together with a discussion of the effects of technological advances.

(iii) The Physical Factor:

This includes physiographic controls upon route selection, and geological and climatic influences.

(iv) The Economic Factor:

The structure and nature of transport costs are examined, together with service quality and methods of pricing and charging.

(v) Political and Social Factors:

These include political motives for transport facilities; government involvement in capital, monopolies competition, safety, working conditions and coordination between modes, transport as an employer and social consequences of transport developments.


3a) what is Localization of Industries 

Localization of industries is meant the tendency on the part of industries to be concentrated in regions which are most suited for their development

3b) Advantages of Localization:

i) localization leads to promotion and growth of subsidiary.

ii) Fourthly, it results in the development of specialized research institutions.

iii) it leads to the spread of fast means of communication and transport.

iv) it encourages the development of financial facilities. When banks and other financing cooperation find profitable field for investment in a locality, they at once open their branches there.

Disadvantages of Localization: 

(i) Localization is dangerous when the demand for the localized products declines due to the growth of foreign competition or due to the changes in the tastes of the people. In that case there will be mass unemployment in the particular localized industries.

(ii) Localization results in the economic independence of one locality on the other or of one country on the other; if the commodity demanded is one of the basic necessities of life, it can cause much inconvenience to the depending nations. 

(iii) People can learn only one type of work in a localized industry. If they wish to go to another place, they may face difficulty in getting employment.

(iv) During war, a localized industry can easily be made a target for bombardment and the whole industry can be ruined to ashes. So it is not wise to place all eggs in one basket. The industry should be decentralized. It should be spread out in various parts of the country so that it may not become an easy target for enemy’s air attack.




1. Providing livelihood to local communities

2. Generating income for the local government thereby directly contributing to its economy

3. Promoting a more efficient use of energy, saving people’s money

4. It increases the rate of foreign exchange which increase the revenue of the country

5b)(1)Inadequate Infrastructure

For mining companies to run smoothly and efficiently, the basic amenities and infrastructures must be available in a reliable form.

Good roads are required for the safe and easy transportation of extracted minerals and also for the ease of movement of the heavy duty company vehicles and equipment.

Water is also required to run the mining process efficiently. Automated processes and clerical works require the presence of electricity. The epileptic condition of electricity in nigeria is one of those factors which is hindering the industrial sector, it is also a problem in the mining sector too

2. Insufficient Funding

Lack of capital is one of the factor which is hindering the small-scale and artisanal miners. These small scale and artisanal miners lack the required amount of capital to procure the necessary equipmnts required for a successful mining process.

The use of crude implements such as spade and hoe as what witnessed among the artisanal miners  at a Cassiterite mining site in Barkin Ladi, Plateau State, will not yield much products compared with the input effort.

3. High Risk and health hazard

Mining is a process involving a greater amount of risk; over the years, there have been cases and records of mine explosions. The high riskiness of mining in Nigeria is due to the fact that the mineral Sector in Nigeria is mainly driven by the artisanal and small scale miners who embark on low technology and crude/traditional methods in their activities.

They are exposed to high risk from dangerous metals such as lead and radioactive waste. Cases of transcend of the limit considered healthy has been recorded in some mining locations in Nigeria.

4. Insufficient Geological Data

There is still a heavy reliance of the Nigerian mining sector on the geological data obtained about 50 years ago despite the fact that some geosciences data have been made available.

The department in the mining sector responsible for the research and collation of geological data should be worked on.

5. Lack of Well-Equipped Laboratory

Frequent research on mineral deposits found in the country will help uncover the various ways through which these minerals can be put to efficient use after extraction. It can also suggest the possible ways through which these minerals can be modified or optimum storage and handling conditions.


a)A good and promising geological data can go a long way to aid the approval of a business plan or release of funds by the government. Also, mining licenses issued by the Cadastre Office should be able to serve as collateral for loans, if supported by reliable information on the quality and grade of deposits.

b)In order for these researches to be successfully carried out, the laboratories must be fully equipped and staffed. The basics amenities such as electricity and water supply must be reliable too. Nigeria lacks these well-equipped laboratories hence the struggles and low development rate of the mining sector

c)The government needs to bring these miners into a legalized framework via making them real start-up miners and ensuring they pay government the right set of taxes and royalties.

d)securing the mining industries from Armed robbers 


6a)(i) ECOWAS has provided a forum for the president of Nigeria to meet with the Heads of other West African States to discuss common problems and find possible solutions;

(ii) free movement of Nigerians to member countries without visas is guaranteed;

(iii) ECOWAS regional gatherings provided opportunities for Nigerians to meet with their counterparts from other member countries to share and promote ideas through sports;

(iv) Nigeria has participated in trade fairs through which her products were advertised;

(v) Nigeria has benefited from the free movement of goods and services; there is always a ready market for the sale of her produce.

(6b)(i)Language barrier

There are three languages that are used for communication within the ECOWAS , that is English, French and Portuguese. For easy communication among members there is the the need for individuals in the region to be able to speak these languages but this is proving to be difficult. This has necessitated the use of interpreters to make people understand each other at summit meetings.

(ii)Widespread Poverty

Many of the member states of ECOWAS are among the poorest of the poor nations in the world. Many of their citizens earn less that a dollar a day. This, in a certain sense is preventing real economic integration of the sub-region while many continue to live in squalor and deprivation.

(iii)Human Rights Abuses

Another problem of the ECOWAS group is the penchant of the member states to abuse the human rights of their citizens. The human rights records of some member states is nothing to write home about. Champions of human rights abuse have cited member states on many occasions over their human rights abuse.Togo was ever cited, Nigeria under Sanni Abacha has ever been cited. This is a problem for ECOWAS.

(iv)Financial problems

The aims and objectives of the ECOWAS can only be achieved when the financial base of the community is solid. However, some member states are not able to honour their financial obligations to the community.This is one problem that has bedeviled the community over the years, especially when it comes to the running of the affairs of the community.


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