1. concentrated in towns
2. mainly import substituting;
3. depend on imported machinery/technology;
1. Making relevant products: manufacturing industries in tropical Africa create an environment where the products created for it populace are made with a proper understanding of their needs.
2. Job creation: With vast youth unemployment in the tropical Africa , manufacturing is one of the only sectors next to agriculture that can create a significant amount of jobs for the currently unemployed in these areas.
3. Participation in the global economy:
Unlike other countries that have strong manufacturing
sectors, tropical Africa countries is limited in its participation in the global economy.
1. inadequate capital;
2. poor management;
3. shortage of raw materials;
Characteristics of subsistence agriculture
1. It is mostly practiced by peasant farmers.
2. It involves a small area of land.
3. It involves the use of local tools eg hoe, cutlass etc.
4. There is no specialization.
5. It employs unskilled labour.
6. The harvest returns are small.
7. It usually involves the use of family labour.
8. It involves mainly the production of food crops alone.
9. It provides for the basic needs of the family.
10. There is little or no surplus for sale.
11. Mixed system of farming is usually practised.
4b) ADVANTAGES OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
1. Provision of basic needs of the family like food and clothing
2. Small plot of land can be used to cultivate such as the backyard garden.
3. Little or low capital is required to carry out subsistence farming.
4c) DISADVANTAGES OR PROBLEMS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
1. Family labour supply is unreliable because they are not paid for job done.
2. Crude tools are used such as cutlass, hoe and rake.
3. Fragmentation or small farmland is available because lands are owned communally and usually shared among family members regardless of whether they are interested in farming or not.
4. No surplus for sale to earn income. All produce are consumed by the family.
5. Pest and diseases are not controlled.
i)It leads to economy development
Ii)it brings about imployment or job opportunities
Iii)It develops the nation
The three factors that have contributed to d high population density in Japan are:
* Aging population: Due to the reduction in birth rate and death rate in Japan, the population density in Japan has increased
* Lifestyle: The lifestyle amongst Japanese has contributed greatly to the high population density in Japan
* Economy: Due to the high population density in Japan , the economy of Japan is strain because government struggle to provide pensions.
i) Insufficient food
ii) Inadequate housing
iii) Traffic congestion
3a)- The North Atlantic Sea Route
– The Panama Canal Route
– The Trans- Pacific Route
– The Cape Route
3b)- It has lead to increased agricultural, mineral and industrial production
– It aids movement of people or labor and capital
– It generates revenue
– it gives rise to employment opportunities
3c)- Rivers should be dredged regularly
– Ships should be equipped with refrigerated holds
– Canal should be constructed to reach landlocked countries
-Loans should be granted to construct and maintain seaports
6a) DRAW THE MAP
6b) Coal is mined by the adit method whereby tunnels are driven in to the hillsides to reach the coal layers which are called seams.
Coal deposits are also known to exist in the middle bely especially Benue State
6c)- Loss of farmland; Mining has led to the destruction of farmlands especially among the oil-producing communities of the Niger Delta.
-Depletion of reserves; Mineral is a kind of nonrenewable resources. Several of them are already being depleted after a long period of exploitation
– Over dependence; The country depends too much on minerals, especially oil. Other sectors are being neglected as a result. If anything bad happens to the oil,Nigeria will face a big problem
-Mining hazards; Mining has its own risks e.g drilling oil in the swampy mosquito infested delta region and right at sea in offshore locations