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Economics Theory


Calculate The Value Of Visible Exports

120,000,000 + 40,000,000,+80,0000



Calculate The Balance Of Trade For The Country

visible export




visible import




Total=240,000,000 – 270,000,000

= -30,000,000


List The Items Of Invisible Exports And Import



ii)shipping and insurance


i)bank services



Calculate The Current Account balance of the country

120,000,000+40,000,00+45,000,000+60,000,000+80,000,000 / 140,000,000+80,000,000+50,000,000+60,000,000+40,000,000

=345,000,000 – 370,000,000

= -25,000,000


Is the country developed or developing? Give one reason for it.

the country is developy because the value of import is greater than the value of exports



Pls put in a tabular form:

Under Output(kg):

0, 15, 35, 60, 85

Under variable cost($):

0, 30, 55, 75, 90

Under Total cost ($):

15, 45, 70, 90, 105

Under Total revenue($):

0, 30, 70, 120, 170


at output 0; marginal revenue (M. R) 

  = $0.00

    at output 15; M.R = TR2-TR1

=30 – 0 = $30.0

   at output 35; M.R = TR3 – TR2

70 – 30 = $40.0

   at output 60; M.R = TR4 – TR3

=120 – 70 = $50.0

   at output 85; M.R = TR5 – TR4

 = 170 – 120 = $50.0


at output 0, marginal cost (mc) = $0.00


at output 15, mc = TC2 – TC1 

     = 45 – 15 = $30.00

at output 35, mc = TC3 – TC2 = 70 – 45 = $25.0

at output 60, mc = TC4 – TC3

= 90 – 70 = $20.0

at output 85, mc = TC5 – TC4

= 85 – 60 = $25.0


(i) The firm broke even at output 60kg. 

(ii) The firm made the highest profit at output level 85kg. 

(iii) The firm attained equilibrium at output 35kg. 


The firm operates on a project market structure.


Optimum population may be defined as that population which is neither too small nor too large, but when combined with the available resources and given the level of existing technology secure a maximum return per head

– It leads to over population; An increasing or large population of a country if not timely controlled will lead to over population

– Increase in government expenditure; The more the population of a country increases, the more the government’s expenditure increases

– It may lead to congestion; Increasing population if not controlled will lead to congestion in the area of housing, traffic, schools,etc,

– Family planning; Family planning which involves giving birth to controllable number of children, adopted in a country will help to check of control both growth and over population

– Sex education; Through this, people are taught the implications of involving in any type of sex and how to do it without having unwanted pregnancy

– Public enlightenment; Government can set up public enlightenment committee to enlighten people on the need of population control



State owned enterprises are public companies established by the act of parliament and control by the board of directors in order to produce essential services for the citizens. Some state owned enterprises are owned by the state government é.g 05BC while others are owned by the federal government e.g NPA, NRC etc.


Huge capital outlay :- Public corporations exist because of the huge capital involved.

Welfarism :- Government set up state owned enterprises in order to enhance the well being of the citizens.

Equitable distribution of wealth public corporations are established in order to ensure even distribution of resources.


Inefficient management :- poor management affect the effectiveness of public corporation.

Corruption :- political interference in the management of state owned enterprises promote corruption in the system.

Lack of willingness on the part of staff of public corporations affect the efficiency of the enterprises.


6a Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made. Commodity moneyconsists of objects that have value in themselves (intrinsic value) as well as value in their use as money.

I.Double Coincidence of Wants:
Ii.Absence of Common Measure of Value
Iii .Lack of Divisibility



The demand schedule, in economics, is a table of the quantity demanded of a good at different price levels. Given the price level, it is easy to determine the expected quantity demanded.

7b) The law of demand states that the higher the price the lower the quantity demanded and the low the price the higher the quantity demanded

7c)(I) Competitive demand; Demand is said to be competitive when a commodity is wanted to satisfy a want in place of another similar commodity

(Ii) Derived demand; This is a situation in which a commodity is wanted not for its immediate satisfaction of want but because of the demand for another commodity

(Iii) Joint Demand; When two or more commodities are wanted to satisfy one want at the same time

(Iv) Composite demand; Demand is said to be composite when a commodity is wanted to satisfy different wants for instance, palm oil may be demanded for cooking food,manufacturing of soap and pomade



Tax is a compulsory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits, or added to the cost of some goods, services, and transactions.

– A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increase as the taxable amount increase
– A proportion tax is a tax imposed so that the tax rate is fixed with no change as the taxable base amount increase or decrease
– A Regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decrease as the amount subject to taxation increase

Equality every person should pay to the Government according to his ability to pay, that is in proportion of the income or revenue he et jove onder the protection of the State.
Is the sum, time and/manner of payment of a tax should not only be certain but the time and manner of its payment should also be convenient to the contributor.
Economy: The Government has to spend money on collecting taxes levied by it- Since collection costs of taxes add nothing to the national product, they should be minimized as far as possible.

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