The Real and Verified WAEC GCE Agricultural science OBJ, ESSAY/Theory Questions and Answer – Jan/Feb 2018 Expo Runz
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Farm surveying is the process of measuring and mapping out the position, height, size and boundary of an area of farmland.
i)It helps to know the size or hectare of a farmstead
and the arrangement of land for proper usage without the risk of land degradation.
ii)Farm surveying help to make proper use of resources available and also to project the maximum profit achieved.
iii)Results of farm survey can be used as collateral for security loan from financial institutions.
iv)Absolute and relative positions of points on the farm and earth’s surface can be determined.
v)The topography or gradient of the farm land can also be determined.
x)It enables the farmer to lay his farm into plots.
1ci)It is used for measuring small offsets from the survey line when the work is of an ordinary nature.
1cii)Gunter’s chain or the surveyor’s chain is a distance measuring device used for land survey.
prismatic compass is a navigation and surveying instrument which is extensively used to find out the
bearing of the traversing and included angles between
them, waypoints and direction.
iv)Measuring tape is used in measuring angular distances.
v) Theodolite is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or planes
i)The initial cost of a machine is high. An idle machine is a waste.
This wastage is greater, if the machine is costly.
ii)Adoption of certain machines will lead to unemployment.
iii)Clerks can more easily be trained in new methods and
systems. In case of machines for specialized jobs, if the systems are changed, it is difficult to make use of them in the new system.
iv)Machines are subject to break-down and lie idle when electricity fails (if it is electrically operated).
v)Depreciation charges are high; this will reduce the profit.
x)Certain types of machines may become obsolete within a
short span of time.
3A 1. They help us breathe.
Forests pump out oxygen we need to live and absorb the carbon dioxide we exhale (or emit). A single mature, leafy tree is estimated to produce a day’s supply of oxygen for anywhere from two to 10 people. Phytoplankton are more prolific, providing half of Earth’s oxygen, but forests are still a key source of quality air.
2. They’re more than just trees.
Nearly half of all known species live in forests, including 80 percent of biodiversity on land. That variety is especially rich in tropical rain forests, from rare parrots to endangered apes, but forests teem with life around the planet: Bugs and worms work nutrients into soil, bees and birds spread pollen and seeds, and keystone species like wolves and big cats keep hungry herbivores in check.
3. People live there, too.
Some 300 million people live in forests worldwide, including an estimated 60 million indigenous people whose survival depends almost entirely on native woods. Many millions more live along or near forest fringes, but even just a scattering of urban trees can raise property values and lower crime.
The canopy towers over a coastal-plain forest in Italy’s Nazionale del Circeo. (Photo: Nicola /Flickr)
4. They keep us cool.
By growing a canopy to hog sunlight, trees also create vital oases of shade on the ground. Urban trees help buildings stay cool, reducing the need for electric fans or air conditioners, while large forests can tackle daunting tasks like curbing a city’s “heat island” effect or regulating regional temperatures.
5. They keep Earth cool.
Trees also have another way to beat the heat: absorb CO2 that fuels global warming. Plants always need some CO2 for photosynthesis, but Earth’s air is now so thick with extra emissions that forests fight global warming just by breathing. CO2 is stored in wood, leaves and soil, often for centuries.
6. They make it rain.
Large forests can influence regional weather patterns and even create their own microclimates. The Amazon, for example, generates atmospheric conditions that not only promote regular rainfall there and in nearby farmland, but potentially as far away as the Great Plains.
1. It also assists in creating body chemicals like hormones and enzymes that are needed for normal function.
2. It provides energy (like carbohydrates do) and keeps the immune system strong.
3.Proteins are made up of amino acids, and dogs require 22 amino acids to make necessary proteins.
Animal (food) products are rich sources of protein. Meat, milk and milk products, egg, poultry, and fish, contain balanced level of amino acids. Protein can also be obtained from plant (vegetable) food items such as legumes (soybean and soybean products, peas, beans etc.), and nuts.
Natural mating is the type of mating by which the the farm animals are allowed to move together and mate freely. Natural mating also enable the farm animals to select their mating partners while ARTIFICIAL Mating is the type of mating that involves the introduction of sperm(semen) into the female genital tract by the farmer through artificial means.
(i) Pen mating
(ii) Hand mating
(i) It helps to enhance growth and development of the farm animals
(ii) It helps the body of the farm animals to build enough immune
(iii) It makes the bones of animals strongs
(iv) It helps to resist diseases
(i) It helps the farm animals to get adequate food
(ii) It helps to improve vegetatioons
(iii) it helps the farm animals to be free from diseases and parasites
(iv) It helps the farmer to control the farm animals easily
pasture for grazing
A good pasture is critical to every grazing system. It has positive effects on the health of livestock and the long-term prod fire burn tgenuctivity and profitability of your business.
Improving pasture for grazing involves a variety of strategies and a coordinated approach. Native and sown (introduced) pastures are complex ecosystems affected by soil type and health, climate, tree cover, and management decisions.
To begin improving your pasture for grazing, you will need to:
understand pasture condition and growth
know how to select the right species for your land
know how to prepare and sow or seed a pasture.
You can then implement management strategies to maximise the productivity and resilience of pasture. These should include plans to control weeds and organise livestock to make the best use of the pastures…
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